• olive oil cooking spray
  • ½ tsp garlic powder
  • 1 lb./ 450 g 90-94% lean ground beef
  • 2 cups lettuce
  • 12 mushroom caps, sliced in half horizontally (2 ½ – 3 inches/ 5 cm diameter)
  • 3 roma or plum tomatoes, sliced.
  • 6 slices reduced-fat Swiss cheese.
  • ¼ cup finely diced scallions
  • 1 tbsp soy sauce (optional).
  • 1 Tbsp Worcestershire sauce (optional).


  1. Combine the beef, scallions, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, garlic powder, and salt in a medium-sized bowl, and mix well. For mixture in 12 small, flat patties.
  2. Coat grill rack lightly with cooking spray. Add beef patties, and grill covered, over medium heat until desired doneness.
  3. Add sliced mushroom caps to grill rack and cook for 1 to 2 minutes per side (mushroom should still be somewhat firm).
  4. Cut cheese slices into four pieces each. Assemble sliders using sliced mushroom caps as buns and add two pieces of cheese per slider. Serve with tomato slices and lettuce.



  • 1 large egg, beaten.
  • 1/2 cup shredded mozzarella.
  • 1 Tbs almond flour
  • 1/4 tsp baking powder
  • 1 tsp sesame seeds
  • 1 Pinch of onion powder


  1. Combine all ingredients.
  2. Pour half into a mini waffle maker (or split between two)
  3. Cook for 5 minutes or until you no longer see steam coming from the waffle maker.
  4. Remove to a wire rack and allow to cool.

Servings 2, Prep time 3 min,

Cooking time 5 min, Calories 137kcal

Total Carbs 2 grams, Net carbs 2 grams

Fat 12 grams, Protein 10 grams



For The Veggies:

  • 2 tsp Extra-virgin olive oil
  • 1/2 Large green pepper, thinly sliced
  • 1/4 Large onion, thinly sliced
  • 1/2 Cup Celery, thinly sliced
  • 1/2 Tbsp Fresh garlic, minced

For The Burgers:

For The Buns:

  • 2 Large sweet potatoes
  • 2 tsp Extra-virgin olive oil

For The Ketchup:


  1. Pre heat your grill to high heat, letting it heat up at least 10 minutes.
  2. Heat the olive oil (for the veggies) in a large frying pan on medium high heat. Add in the pepper, onion, celery and garlic and cook, stirring frequently, until soft and golden brown, about 5-7 minutes. Keep on low heat to keep warm.
  3. Combine the ground beef and Cajun seasoning in a large bowl and mix evenly.  Form into 3 patties. Brush each side lightly with olive oil.
  4. Once the grill is on high heat, put the burgers over direct heat and cook for 4 minutes. Flip and cook an additional 3-4 minutes, or until they reach the desired level of done-ness. Transfer to a plate and cover to keep warm and let rest.
  5. Make 8 slices out of the middle of the sweet potato (it’s the largest part).  Place them into a large, microwave-safe bowl and add a little water. Cover and microwave until they JUST begin to soften, only about 2 minutes.  Drain the water and pat the potatoes dry with a paper towel. *
  6. Brush each side of the potatoes with the oil and grill until nice char marks form, about 4 minutes. Flip and cook and additional 3-4 minutes until fork tender, but not mushy.
  7. While the potatoes cook, mix all the ketchup ingredients in a medium bowl.
  8. To Serve:
  9. Divide the ketchup between all 8 of the sweet potato slices.  Divide the veggies between 4 of the slices, place one burger on top of each veggie-covered slice. Cover with the remaining sweet potatoes.


Calories: 307 kcal (15%) Carbohydrates: 20.7 g (7%) Protein: 23 g (46%) Fat: 16.3 g (25%) Saturated Fat: 5.1 g (32%) Polyunsaturated Fat: 1.1 g Monounsaturated Fat: 5 g Cholesterol: 60 mg (20%) Sodium: 247.7 mg (11%) Potassium: 363.1 mg (10%) Fiber: 2.9 g (12%) Sugar: 5.6 g (6%) Vitamin A: 10130 IU (203%) Vitamin C: 56.3 mg (68%) Calcium: 27 mg (3%) Iron: 1 mg (6%)

Adapted from Cajun Burgers with Sweet Potato Buns | Food Faith Fitness

Just be aware that baking (frying) vegetables may raise the GI e.g. as for sweet potato. (as with other vegetables)

The way we cook can change the GI of food e.g. The GI of a 150g sweet potato, boiled with its skin for 30 minutes, is 46. That number rises to 94 if the same sweet potato is baked for 45 minutes.

And here an excellent tool to find the GI of foods, i.e. Sweet Potato.



  • 4 ounces/ 115 g roast beef
  • 2 egg whites
  • 2 tbsp almond flour
  • 1 tbsp sour cream
  • 1/2 cup mozzarella
  • 1/2 cup low sodium beef broth


  1. To prepare the chaffle, whip the egg white until frothy. Add the sour cream and almond flour and blend well. Mix in the cheese.
  2. Preheat the mini waffle maker as per manufacturer’s directions. When hot, add half the batter and cook for 7-10 minutes or until the chaffle is golden brown and releases easily. Repeat with the remaining batter.
  3. Meanwhile, warm the beef broth in a small fry pan or pot. Add the sliced beef to heat through – but don’t over cook it!
  4. To assemble, place the drained beef on the chaffle, top with cheese (optional) and serve with the remaining broth on the side.


Serving: 1 chaffwich | Calories: 445 kcal | Carbohydrates: 5 g | Protein: 49 g | Fat: 26 g | Saturated Fat: 11 g | Cholesterol: 115 mg | Sodium: 2387 mg | Potassium: 698 mg | Fiber: 1 g | Sugar: 2 g | Vitamin A: 453 IU | Vitamin C: 51 mg | Calcium: 643 mg | Iron: 3 mg | Net Carbohydrates: 4 g

Adapted from Keto French Dip Chaffwich – Keto Cooking Wins

This and other Mediterranean recipes can be found here.

And here.



  • Broccoli 16 oz./ 450 g frozen or 1 head cut into florets and use the stems too.
  • 1 large egg
  • 1/2 onion
  • 2 garlic cloves
  • 1/2 cup shredded mozzarella
  • 4 TBSP grated Parmesan cheese
  • 2 TBSP flour  or an extra egg
  • 1/2 tsp black pepper
  • 1/4 tsp oregano
  • 1/4 tsp red pepper flakes
  • 1 TBSP Olive Oil for frying


  1. In a food processor pulse the fresh broccoli, onion and garlic. Don’t over process but should be chopped well. If you are using frozen broccoli make sure to defrost and squeeze out all the excess water. If you are using a combination of both process the onion and fresh broccoli with the garlic first and then add the frozen broccoli. Just pulse a few times after you’ve added the frozen broccoli.
  2. In a large bowl, combine the broccoli mixture, egg, cheese, flour and seasonings.
  3. Form the mixture into 1/2 inch thick (1.25 cm) patties that are about 4 inches (5 cm) wide. You should get about six burgers from this recipe.
  4. Heat the oil in a large fry pan over medium high heat and add the burgers.
  5. Cook the burgers for about eight minutes on each side until they are golden brown.
  6. Transfer to a large paper towel lined plate. Serve warm.

Recipe Notes

These burgers can be kept in the refrigerator for up to five days or you can freeze them. When reheating they will be fabulous in the air fryer or even in a fry pan with a tiny bit of oil. Enjoy.

Adapted from Broccoli Burgers (


Picture 031


  • 1 can (15 ounces) chickpeas, rinsed and drained or dried soaked overnight and drained
  • 1/3 cup chopped carrots
  • 1/3 cup herbed croutons
  • 1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley
  • 1/4 cup chopped onion
  • 1 egg white
  • 1 teaspoon minced garlic
  • 1 teaspoon grated lemon peel
  • 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1/8 teaspoon ginger
  • Olive oil cooking spray
  • 4 whole-grain hamburger buns (optional)
  • Tomato slices, lettuce leaves and salsa (optional)


  1. Place chickpeas, carrots, croutons, parsley, onion, egg white, garlic, lemon peel, pepper and ginger in food processor; process until blended. Shape mixture into 4 patties.
  2. Spray large stoneware fry pan with cooking spray; heat over medium heat. Cook patties 4 to 5 minutes, or until bottoms are browned. Spray tops of patties with olive oil cooking spray; turn and cook 4 to 5 minutes, or until browned.
  3. Serve burgers on buns with tomato, lettuce and salsa, if desired.

Nutrition on original

4 servings

Serving size:
1 burger

Calories: 271 calories, Carbohydrates: 48 g, Protein: 11 g, Fat: 5 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 1 mg, Sodium: 272 mg, Fiber: 7 g

Adapted from



To Serve (Optional)


  1. Heat a small fry pan or skillet over a medium high heat, add the mince/ground beef and fry until meat is browned.
  2. Add the taco seasoning and continue to cook until the beef is cooked through. Set beef aside.
  3. In a small bowl, whisk together eggs, ginger and pepper.
  4. Heat a clean non-stick frying pan or skillet on a medium heat.
  5. Spread out the grated cheese into the bottom of the pan and cook until the cheese is bubbling.
  6. Gently pour the egg mixture over the cheese and cook on low for 2-3 minutes without stirring.
  7. Once the egg mixture is nearly set, sprinkle the meat mixture over half the omelette.
  8. Cook on low for a further 1-2 minutes.
  9. Carefully fold the cheese and egg mixture side of the omelette over the top of the meat mixture side of the omelette and cook for a further 1-2 minutes or until egg is set.
  10. Transfer to a plate and top with your favourite combination of Mexican toppings and serve.

Nutrition Per Serve or original

Calories: 725kcal | Carbohydrates: 2g | Protein: 49g | Fat: 56g | Fibre: 0g | Sugar: 0g | Net Carbs: 2g

Adapted from



  • 4 cups cooked brown lentils
  • 1 teaspoon olive oil
  • 1 small brown onion
  • 4 cloves garlic
  • 4 cups button mushrooms
  • tablespoons fresh thyme leaves
  • 1 tomatoes
  • 33333 cups walnuts
  • 1 tablespoons tomato paste
  • 1 carrot
  • 2 teaspoons curry powder
  • 3 teaspoons ground cumin
  • 1 tablespoon low-salt soy sauce
  • 5 cups multigrain breadcrumbs or just use 2 eggs
  • 5 cups sesame seeds


  1. Preheat oven to 180°C.
  2. Sauté finely chopped onion and garlic in water until soft and slightly brown, then add the diced mushrooms and cook until mushrooms start to brown.
  3. In a large bowl, combine cooked lentils, onion, garlic, mushrooms and chopped thyme. Add finely chopped tomatoes and walnuts, tomato paste, grated carrot, curry powder, ground cumin and soy sauce and mix well. Add two thirds of the breadcrumbs and combine.
  4. Combine remaining breadcrumbs or eggs with sesame seeds in a separate bowl.
  5. Divide mixture into quater cup-sized balls, flatten and coat in sesame seed mixture.
  6. Line a baking tray with baking paper or spray baking tray with non-stick cooking spray. Place patties on tray and bake with grill element on for approximately 6 minutes on each side. Turn grill element off and bake in oven for a further 5–8 minutes.

Adapted from



Original At

Preparation time: 10 min minutes
Cooking time: 30 min minutes
Serving size: 4


2 onions, finely sliced
2 ripe tomatoes, sliced
8 slices of fresh beetroot
8 baby cos lettuce leaves
Low salt BBQ sauce, to serve
4 multi grain rolls (Make your own) (Gluten free option available)

Burger rissole:
1 cup red lentils, washed and drained
750ml water

200g lean beef mince (make your own if you can) Chicken mince can be used her.
2 cloves garlic, crushed
2 egg white
1/3 cup dry multigrain breadcrumbs or gluten free
1 tablespoon olive oil


1. Place lentils in a medium saucepan and cover with water, bring to the boil, cover and simmer for 10-15 minutes or until tender, drain if there is any excess liquid. Allow to cool.
2. Heat half the oil in a large frying pan over medium heat and cook onions until golden and caramelized. Set aside.

3. Combine cooled lentils with mince, garlic, egg whites, breadcrumbs and a little freshly cracked pepper. Form into 4 rissoles and refrigerate until ready to cook.
4. Heat remaining oil in same pan onions were cooked in and cook rissoles over medium heat for 5 minutes each side or until cooked through.
5. Toast rolls and assemble with rissoles, onions, tomato, beetroot, lettuce and sauce.



  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 400g button mushrooms
  • 400g lean beef mince if possible, make your own
  • 1 small brown onion
  • 1 egg
  • 4 hamburger buns
  • 2 cups ice burg lettuce
  • 8 slices tomatoes
  • Ginger and pepper


  1. Place oil into a large Stoneware frying pan over medium-high and heat until hot.
  2. Add finely chopped mushrooms and cook, stirring for 4-5 minutes or until pan juices have evaporated. Remove from heat, drain excess liquid and set aside 10 minutes.
  3. Combine mushrooms, beef mince, finely chopped onion, ginger and pepper, add the lightly beaten egg in a large mixing bowl. Mix well using your hands. Form mixture into patties (2 per person), place onto a tray, cover with plastic container and refrigerate for 20 minutes.
  4. Heat a large non-stick frying pan on medium-high heat. Cook patties for 4-5 minutes on each side or until cooked to your liking.
  5. Grill hamburger buns. Top bun bases with shredded lettuce, sliced tomato and two patties. Or serve as a lettuce wrap.

Dietitians Note

To lower the glycemic index (GI) and to increase the fibre content always choose multigrain hamburger buns.

Adapted from

(ps these are fried not steamed)


300g broccoli, cut into florets
3 eggs
185g can tuna in spring water, drained, flaked
60g reduced-fat cheese of choice, crumbled
2 tablespoons chopped chives, plus extra 2 teaspoons
2 tablespoons chopped mint, plus extra 2 teaspoons
2 teaspoons lemon zest, plus extra 1 teaspoon
2 Lebanese cucumbers, halved, sliced
80g mixed salad leaves
4 radishes, thinly sliced
1/2 cup reduced-fat Greek-style yoghurt
lemon wedges, to serve


  1. Cook broccoli in a saucepan of boiling water until just tender. Drain. Refresh under cold running water. Drain, and coarsely chop.
  2. Whisk eggs in a large bowl until smooth. Add quinoa, broccoli, tuna, cheese, chives, mint and zest. Season the mixture with cracked black pepper and stir until it is well combined.
  3. Prepare a large steamer over heat to create steam.
  4. Separate the mixture into serve size portions and add to pie trays or a muffin try that will fit into your steamer.
  5. Cook mixture for 10 minutes.
  6. When cooked pour off any liquid.
  7. Meanwhile, combine the cucumber, salad leaves and radishes in a salad bowl. Mix the yoghurt with extra chives, mint and zest. Serve steamed fritters with salad, lemon and herb yoghurt and lemon wedges.

Adapted from



  • 1 cup sweet potato, chopped, cooked and mashed (180g raw)
  • 2 cups canned cooked green or brown lentils, drained (or freshly cooked)
  • 1 onion, finely grated
  • 1 clove garlic crushed
  • 1 carrot grated
  • 1 cup wholemeal breadcrumbs
  • 1 egg, lightly beaten
  • 1/4 cup sesame seeds
  • 1/4 cup sunflower seeds
  • 1 tbs no added tomato paste (optional)
  • 2 tbs flat-leaf parsley, chopped
  • olive oil spray
  • 4 tbs light tzatziki NB1
  • large green salad, to serve


  1. If using the oven to cook the patties, preheat to 180°C and line an oven tray with baking paper.
  2. In a bowl, combine mashed, sweet potato, lentils, onion, garlic, carrot, breadcrumbs, egg, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tomato sauce (if using) and parsley. With wet hands, shape into 12 even-sized patties.
  3. If baking patties: Arrange on prepared tray and spray with oil. Bake for 40 minutes, turning over halfway through cooking. If frying patties: Spray a large, heavy-based frying pan with oil. Cook patties over medium heat for 5 minutes each side, or until crisp and golden and cooked through.
  4. Serve with tzatziki and green salad.

Nutrition Information (per serve) of original

Energy 1325.1 kJ (317 calories)
Protein 14.3g
Total Fat 9.8g
Carbohydrates 37.9g
Saturated Fat 1.6g
Sugars 7.8g
Dietary Fibre 8.7g
Sodium 431.1mg


NB1 I would substitute Greek yoghurt for Tzatziki


Tzatziki is a sauce served with grilled meats or as a dip. Tzatziki is made of salted strained yogurt or diluted yogurt mixed with cucumbers, garlic, salt, olive oil, sometimes with vinegar or lemon juice, and some herbs like dill, mint, parsley, thyme etc. It is generally served as a cold meze.



We all like a burger from time to time, here is my suggestion for a healthy diabetic friendly burger. As usual if this is not suitable for you do not make it


  • 1 medium beetroot, peeled and grated
  • 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
  • 1/4 teaspoon finely grated ginger
  • 1 tablespoon finely chopped coriander
  • 400g lean grass fed mince (Beef, veal or game works well, make your own as this will ensure it is relatively fat free
  • 3 spring onions, finely chopped
  • 1 small carrot, grated
  • 3 teaspoons sesame seeds
  • 1 teaspoon ground cumin
  • 1 omega-3 egg, lightly beaten
  • olive oil spray
  • 4 wholegrain rolls, split in half
  • 1 cucumber, peeled into ribbons
  • 80g mixed lettuce
  • 2/3 cup natural yogurt
  • extra coriander, for serving


  1. In a small bowl mix together the beetroot, vinegar, ginger and coriander. Chill for at least 10 minutes or until the beetroot has softened slightly.
  2. Using clean hands, combine the mince with the onion, carrot, sesame seeds, cumin and egg until sticky. Shape into 4 burgers, spray lightly with oil and cook on a hot grill for 5 minutes each side or until cooked through, keep warm. Lightly toast bread rolls on the grill.
  3. Fill each roll with lettuce, cucumber, a burger, some beetroot relish, yogurt and extra coriander and serve immediately.

Adapted from



  • 1 cup sweet potato, chopped, steamed and mashed (180g precooked)
  • 2 cups green or brown lentils, soaked overnight, cooked and drained
  • 1 onion, finely grated
  • 1 clove garlic, crushed
  • 1 carrot, grated
  • 1 cup wholemeal breadcrumbs
  • 1 egg, lightly beaten
  • 1/4 cup sesame seeds
  • 1/4 cup sunflower seeds
  • 1 tbs. no added salt tomato paste (optional)
  • 2 tbs. flat-leaf parsley, chopped
  • olive oil spray
  • 4 tbs. light Greek Yoghurt
  • large green salad, to serve


  1. If using the oven to cook the patties, preheat to 180°C and line an oven tray with baking paper.
  2. In a bowl, combine mashed, sweet potato, lentils, onion, garlic, carrot, breadcrumbs, egg, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tomato paste (if using) and parsley. With wet hands, shape into 12 even-sized patties.
  3. If baking patties: Arrange on prepared tray and spray with oil. Bake for 40 minutes, turning over halfway through cooking. If frying patties: Spray a large, heavy-based frying pan with oil. Cook patties over medium heat for 5 minutes each side, or until crisp and golden and cooked through.
  4. Serve with Greek Yoghurt and green salad.

Nutrition Information (per serve)

Energy 1325.1 kJ (317 calories)
Protein 14.3g
Total Fat 9.8g
Carbohydrates 37.9g
Saturated Fat 1.6g
Sugars 7.8g
Dietary Fibre 8.7g
Sodium 431.1mg

Adapted from

Quinoa Black Bean Burgers

Serves 9


Burger patties:

  • 1/2 cup quinoa
  • 1 cup water
  • 2 (15-ounce) cans black beans, rinsed and drained, divided
  • 2 egg whites
  • 1/4 cup salsa
  • 1/4 cup corn meal (eg Polenta) or oat bran
  • 1 tsp paprika
  • 1/2 tsp cumin
  • 1/4 tsp cayenne pepper (optional)
  • Toppings:
  • 9 iceberg lettuce leaves
  • 9 Tbsp salsa


  1. Cook dried quinoa in water according to steps on the package.
  2. Mix 1 can black beans (Flattened with a fork), the egg white and 1/4 cup salsa in a bowl until smooth.
  3. Pour cooked quinoa in a medium bowl; add the bean mixture, add the other can of beans, cornmeal, paprika, cumin and cayenne pepper (optional). Mix together until all ingredients are well combined.
  4. Form mixture into nine 1/2-inch thick patties.
  5. Coat a large stoneware frypan with olive oil cooking spray and heat over medium heat. Add black bean patties and grill for 2-3 minutes per side or until browned on both sides.
  6. Serve each patty in a lettuce leaf topped with 1 tablespoon of salsa on a wholegrain burger bun


  • 170 Calories
  • 5 g Fat
  • 20 mg Cholesterol
  • 215 mg Sodium
  • 26 g Carbohydrate
  • 8 g Fiber
  • 8 g Protein


Serves 3

Preparation time 30 mins

Cooking time 15 mins


  • 1 medium zucchini, thinly sliced
  • 2 tbs of Olive oil
  • 1 small sweet potato peeled, cut into cubes and cooked
  • 1 cup of chickpeas, soaked overnight drained and rinsed thoroughly.
  • 1 clove of garlic, crushed
  • Juice of half a lemon
  • 1/3 cup of almond meal
  • 4 wholegrain bread rolls
  • 100g baby spinach leaves
  • 1 tbs of low fat ricotta cheese (If you require more dairy in your diet)
  • Season with pepper


  1. Place sliced zucchini in a baking dish and drizzle with half the oil. Bake in oven at 180oC for 10-15 minutes or until golden brown.
  2. Add the cooked sweet potato, drained chickpeas and garlic to a bowl and blend with a bar mix or mash with a potato masher.
  3. Squeeze in the juice of half a lemon.
  4. Divide the mixture into four parts.
  5. Make burgers and roll gently in almond meal.
  6. Heat the remaining oil in a pan over a medium heat.
  7. Add the burgers to the pan and cook until lightly brown on each side.
  8. Place the burger and zucchini slices into a wholegrain roll.
  9. Serve with baby spinach leaves, and ricotta cheese.
  10. Season with pepper.

Nutritional information per serve

  • Total energy 2090 kJ / 497 cal
  • Protein 16 g
  • Total fat 26 g
  • Saturated fat 1 g
  • Total carbohydrate 42 g
  • Fibre 11 g
  • Sodium 343 mg

About this recipe

An alternative to a meat burger. Chickpeas are a good source of protein as well as carbohydrate. They also contain fibre which will keep you fuller for longer. Fibre is beneficial for your digestive system.





500g lean grass fed beef mince (Game, Chicken or other lean meat can be used.)
1 tsp crushed garlic
1 small onion, grated
1 apple, peeled and grated (if you are effected by fructose omit)
1 small carrot, grated
125g ricotta cheese, drained
1/3 cup fresh multigrain breadcrumbs
½ cup freshly chopped parsley
1 egg
1 pinch of nutmeg
1 pinch of paprika
1 tub Leggo’s no added salt pasta source.


1 leek, cut into thin strips
6 zucchinis, sliced into spaghetti using a mandolin or spiraliser.
1 tsp olive oil
black pepper
squeeze of lemon


  1. Preheat the oven to 180°C. Combine mince, garlic, onion, apple and carrot in a bowl, and mix until all ingredients are combined.
  2. Add ricotta, breadcrumbs, parsley, egg and spices to the bowl and mix until well combined. Shape into meatballs and place into an ovenproof dish.
  3. Pour pasta sauce over meatballs and cover and bake for ten minutes. Remove lid and bake for a further 15 minutes or until meatballs are cooked through.
  4. Meanwhile cook the leek in a pan over medium heat with olive oil. Add the zucchini and toss through for a few seconds until warm. Season “spaghetti” with a little lemon and black pepper, divide between serving plates and top with the meatballs.
  5. Serve sprinkled with fresh chopped parsley.


Toasted Sandwhich


1 egg
Dash milk
Handful spinach
4 cherry tomatoes
3 button mushrooms
1 slice wholegrain bread
Mixed herbs, pepper
Balsamic glaze (optional)


  1. Whisk together egg, milk and a sprinkle of pepper and mixed herbs. Pour onto a deep plate.
    2. Place bread into egg mixture and let absorb. Repeat on other side until mixture is fully absorbed into bread.
    3. Place onto hot sand which maker oiled with olive oil spray and close lid.
    4. Cut cherry tomatoes in half and slice mushrooms. Cook in pan greased with oil until tender.
    5. Serve toast topped with handful chopped spinach, cooked mushroom and tomato and crumbled feta. Drizzle with a little balsamic reduction if desired.